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Chapter 1: Properties of Milk and its Components

Dairy-Based Ingredients
Pages 1-5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/9780913250945.001
ISBN: 0-913250-94-5


Topics Covered

  • Milk Composition
  • Constituents of Milk
    • Major Constituents
    • Minor and Trace Constituents
  • Physical Properties of Milk
    • Color
    • Flavor
    • Density and Specific Gravity
    • Surface Tension
    • Foaming
    • Viscosity
    • Specific Heat
    • Electrical Conductivity
    • Freezing Point
    • Boiling Point
    • Refractivity

Introduction to Chapter

Milk and dairy-based ingredients are used as components of many food products. Their contributions consist of unique flavor, desirable texture, excellent nutritive value, and a widely accepted “natural” image. In many instances, the success of the product in the marketplace is significantly enhanced by incorporation of traditional functional ingredients familiar to the consumer. Thus, dairy ingredients provide a consumer-friendly label on packaged foods.

Dairy ingredients contribute a number of characteristics critical to a food product. These include the emulsifying and stabilizing ability of caseinates, the gelling properties of whey protein concentrates and isolates, the water-absorption capacity of high-heat nonfat dry milk, and the browning of lactose during heat processing. Furthermore, the crystallization characteristics of lactose and the hydrolytic activity of the enzyme lactase are important in confectionery and frozen products. In addition, butter flavor carryover can be achieved with enzyme-modified butterfat and various cheese flavors imparted by enzyme-modified cheeses. Therefore, a food developer can select an appropriate dairy-based ingredient to create certain desirable attributes in foods. An understanding of the functional properties of dairy ingredients allows food technologists to utilize their potential contribution to product characteristics to meet consumer expectations.