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Chapter 3: Production and Specifications of Milk Concentrates

Dairy-Based Ingredients
Pages 23-39
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/9780913250945.003
ISBN: 0-913250-94-5


Topics Covered

  • Concentrated Milk Products
    • Condensed Products
    • Dry Milk Products
  • Whey Products and Lactose
    • Processing Techniques
    • Whey Products
    • Lactose
  • Milkfat Concentrates
    • Cream
    • Butter and its Products

Introduction to Chapter

Dairy ingredients used in the formulation of various food products constitute milk in fluid, condensed, or dry form, which provide the desirable attributes of nutrition, water binding, fat holding, emulsification, viscosity, gelation, and foaming, as well as textural and flavor attributes. In addition, custom-made mixes may be fabricated by dairy plants for food plants producing yogurt, ice cream, and confectionery products. Also, milk and whey are fractionated to concentrate protein, fat, or mineral constituents to enhance their utility in food product performance. The typical composition of dairy ingredients is shown in Appendix B.

In general, the functional properties of a dairy ingredient are related to its chemical composition and the specific processing conditions to which it is subjected to modify its performance in a given food system. Selection of a dairy ingredient is largely based on the desired contribution of functional proteins, fats, lactose, and minerals in a given food. Cost and availability also contribute to the use of a particular ingredient. Recent trends in production of major dairy products (1) have had an impact on their cost and availability. In 1995, 36% of the milkfat in the United States was utilized in fluid milk and cream, and 34% was used in the production of cheese (Fig. 3-1A). Sales of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) are affected by supply and demand factors, which are influenced by government programs. NFDM uses are illustrated in Figure 3-1B. The end-uses of dry whole milk and dry buttermilk are illustrated in Figure 3-1C and D, respectively.

Effective utilization of milkfat has been a challenge for many years in view of its saturated fatty acid makeup and the subsequent controversial link to human cardiovascular disease. More recently, the butterfat surplus has disappeared, mostly because of reduced pricing of the fat.