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Chapter 6: Chocolate and Confectionery Products

Dairy-Based Ingredients
Pages 69-78
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/9780913250945.006
ISBN: 0-913250-94-5


Topics Covered

  • Chocolate Products
    • Dairy-Based Ingredients
    • Manufacturing Considerations
  • Confections
    • Dairy-Based Ingredients
    • Manufacturing Considerations
  • New Opportunities in Chocolate and Confections for Dairy-Based Ingredients
  • Troubleshooting

Introduction to Chapter

Confections belong to two categories depending on their crystalline or amorphous structure (1–3). Crystalline confectionery products include chocolate, creams, fudge, fondants, nougats, marshmallows, pralines, and pressed sweets or lozenges. The amorphous or noncrystalline products are hard or chewy caramels, taffy, toffee, and brittles. From the standpoint of dairy ingredient usage, milk chocolate, fudge, caramel, toffee, and pralines are the most significant.

Dairy-based ingredients used in confectionery products include whole milk powder, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated milk, milk crumb, butter, anhydrous butterfat, lactose, caseins, and whey products.

Large manufacturers tend to purchase fluid milk for conversion into condensed or dry milks by proprietary processes in their own plants. In general, this allows them economies of scale as well as control of quality and functional properties in their products for a competitive edge. Since confections are extremely low-moisture foods, small manufacturers prefer to purchase concentrated sources of milk solids.

Dairy-based ingredients are natural, traditional ingredients that contribute desirable flavor, texture, and color to the products. They enhance the nutritional value, particularly the protein and calcium profiles. Milkfat, milk proteins, and lactose impart desirable functionality either in their native form or by interaction with other confectionery ingredients (2,3). These ingredients have been described earlier. Their functional attributes are described in Table 6-1.

The functional properties of dairy ingredients must be compatible with the composition and process used in the confection manufacture. Confections may contain reducing sugars and high levels of sugars, starches, and fats. Processing conditions involve exposure to temperatures exceeding 100°C (212°F) for extended periods of time. Therefore, interactions among carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids of ingredients leading to formation of color and generation of flavor and texture in the finished product need to be balanced.