- Raw Milk Handling and Storage
- Fat Standardization
- Standardization of Fat and Solids-Not-Fat
- Packaging and Storage
Introduction to Chapter
Whole milk, low-fat milk, and skim milk are rarely used as ingredients in food products other than dairy products because of their excessive moisture content (88%) and the possible undesirable interactions among food constituents brought about by the thermal treatments often necessary during processing. For example, lactose may become insoluble, causing grittiness, or reducing sugars in a food system may react with milk proteins to cause browning discoloration. Nevertheless, in certain instances, fluid milk may be the ingredient of choice for economic reasons. The food formulator may be able to adjust the quantity of water in a food by compensating for water contained in fluid milk.
Fluid milk, in forms ranging from whole milk to skim milk, is the main ingredient purchased by dairy processors and manufacturers of yogurt and other grade A fermented milk products. In addition, cheese plants and frozen dessert manufacturers purchase milk (manufacturing grade and Grade A) in bulk quantities.
Specifications for fluid whole milk and skim milk are shown in Table 2-1. In most states, milk is designated as Grade A, manufacturing grade, or reject. Grades A, B, or C are also used by some agencies. More than 95% of all the milk produced now conforms to Grade A requirements as defined in the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) (1, Table 2-2).
A typical fluid milk and dairy product operation is shown in Figure 2-1 (2–4).