- Butter in Baked Products
- Functions of Butter
- Handling of Butter in Bakeries
- Hard Wheat Products
- Pastry and Laminated Doughs
- Bread and Biscuits
- Soft Wheat Products
- Other Products
- Role of Dairy Ingredients in fat Reduction of Baked Foods
Introduction to Chapter
Ingredients used in baking consist primarily of flours, sugars and syrups, shortening, milk products and blends, eggs and egg products, and water. Flours, sugars, water, and shortenings are major and essential components of most bakery items. Dairy-derived ingredients (including butter), eggs, and other minor ingredients contribute desirable properties to the products.
Ideally, whole milk or its concentrates would be used to produce baked goods with premium flavor. In reality, coproducts from the dairy industry are commonly used, primarily to satisfy the economic conditions of commercial bakery businesses. Bakery blends based on nonfat dry milk (NFDM), whey solids, whey protein concentrates, and sodium or calcium caseinates constitute valuable ingredients in bakery products and are available for customized use by the baker. These ingredients, which are used along with defatted soya flour, emulsifiers, and dough conditioning agents, provide nutritional value as well as desirable functional properties. Economical substitute blends with functional attributes comparable to those of NFDM have also been developed.
Functional milk constituents (other than milkfat) of interest to bakers are milk sugar and milk protein (1). These contribute to the structure of the final product, to flavor and color development through browning reactions, and to texture, grain, and crumb structure. They tenderize the product, promote moisture retention, extend shelf life, and supply a food source for yeast during fermentation. Dry and liquid whey are economical sources of lactose, whereas NFDM, dry buttermilk, and whey protein concentrate provide the functionality of lactose and milk protein. The baking quality of NFDM can be assessed by a standard procedure (2).
Whey and whey products have been used in many bakery applications. They promote color formation in crust and crumb, increase volume, and improve texture. Caramelization of lactose during baking gives characteristic aromas and flavors. Specialty whey products can replace egg products at considerable savings in ingredient cost. Examples of dairy products in some bread types are given in Table 5-1.