- Regulation by the Food and Drug Administration
- The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
- Standards of Identity
- Analytical Tests
- Microbiological Safety and Sanitary Practices
- Good Manufacturing Practices
- Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
Introduction to Chapter
Milk processing and marketing, as well as the manufacture of dairy products, are regulated by federal, state, and local authorities. Regulatory aspects of the manufacture of dairy products in the United States is discussed below.
Food processors should have a basic understanding of food regulations to ensure that they are in compliance. Regulations are of two basic types. A substantive regulation, which carries the same weight as a law, defines what may or may not be done. For example, labeling regulations define precisely how a label is to be prepared. The second type, an interpretive regulation, is enacted to address a law but allows some leeway in how to comply. Such regulations use the word “should.” Since it takes a long time to develop regulations and pass laws, it may take years for the law to be enacted.
The dairy and food industries are regulated by various agencies of the federal (Table 10-1), state, and/or local governments.